Berfin Sıla Akdoğdu1, Oytun Erbaş1,2

1Institute of Experimental Medicine, Gebze-Kocaeli, Turkey
2Department of Physiology, Medical Faculty of Demiroğlu Bilim University, Istanbul, Turkey

Keywords: Amygdala, brain, cingulate cortex, major depressive disorder, subgenual anterior cingulate cortex


Psychiatric disorders have various underlying causes, which have piqued people's interest since ancient times. Examples include genetics, neurological problems, and environmental influences. For psychiatric disorders, there is no single care plan or treatment method. To develop a definitive cure, we need to better understand the diseases' underlying causes. As a result, we focused on abnormalities of the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex and amygdala in this review.

Conflict of Interest

The authors declared no conflicts of interest with respect to the authorship and/or publication of this article.

Financial Disclosure

The authors received no financial support for the research and/or authorship of this article.