Burak Akverdi1, Oytun Erbaş1,2

1Institute of Experimental Medicine, Gebze-Kocaeli, Turkey
2Department of Physiology, Medical Faculty of Demiroğlu Bilim University, Istanbul, Turkey

Keywords: Cancer, molecular oncology, tumor biomarkers


In oncology, tumor biomarkers are a critical component of personalized care. Biomarkers include specific cells, molecules, genes and products, proteins, enzymes, and hormones. It has a wide range of uses such as screening, staging, differential diagnosis, risk and prognosis assessment, treatment response, and monitoring disease status. In this review, alpha-fetoprotein, carcinoembryogenic antigen, prostate-specific antigen, cancer antigen 15-3, carbohydrate antigen/cancer antigen 19-9, cancer antigen 125, carbohydrate antigen 50, cancer antigen 72-4, neuron-specific enolase, squamous cell carcinoma antigen, beta 2-microglobulin, and thyroglobulin, and their relation to cancer studies and clinical benefits were discussed.

Conflict of Interest

The authors declared no conflicts of interest with respect to the authorship and/or publication of this article.

Financial Disclosure

The authors received no financial support for the research and/or authorship of this article.