Hydatid cyst and treatment
Mine Ün1, Sıdıka Sultan Yaman2, Oytun Erbaş3,4
1Istanbul Aydın University Faculty of Medicine, Istanbul, Turkey
2Demiroğlu Bilim University Faculty of Medicine, Istanbul, Turkey
3Institute of Experimental Medicine, Gebze-Kocaeli, Turkey
4Department of Physiology, Medical Faculty of Demiroğlu Bilim University, Istanbul, Turkey
Keywords: Daughter vesicles, echinococcosis, E. granulosus, hydatid cyst, treatment
Echinococcosis also known as hydatid cyst disease (HD) is caused by the transmission of Echinococcus granulosus (E. granulosus) from animals to humans. Transmission is by fecal-oral contact, usually from infected domestic dogs or their stools containing eggs. E. granulosus forms unilocular cysts, particularly in liver and lungs in humans following infection. Although the most common location is the liver, hydatid cyst formation can be seen almost everywhere in the body. In patients with liver cysts, abdominal pain and anorexia are the most common manifestations. It can compress the bile ducts, leading to jaundice. Cysts in the lungs present with symptoms as chronic cough, dyspnea, pleuritic chest, pain and hemoptysis. Ultrasound is a rapid and accurate method to detect liver lesions with a precision up to 90 to 95%. Hydatid cyst usually has the appearance of a simple fluid-filled cyst on ultrasound; however, the appearance and characteristics may change depending on the development stage of the disease. Computed tomography (CT) scan and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are more sensitive and specific in the detection and characterization of HD. Surgical treatment has long been accepted as the definitive treatment method for hydatid cyst. It can be performed in about 90% of patients, if the disease has not progressed excessively. In addition, the puncture, aspiration, injection, and re-aspiration (PAIR) technique, which is a less invasive approach, is an alternative treatment performed by aspirating the cystic fluid with ultrasound or CT. In addition, two medications as mebendazole and albendazole, are used for the treatment of hydatid cyst in patients, if necessary. The management and treatment approach of hydatid cyst depends on the affected organ, the number of cysts, the presence of cystic-biliary communication, secondary bacterial infection, and hemorrhage. Therefore, it is of utmost importance to evaluate each case thoroughly and carefully to achieve the best possible outcome.
The authors declared no conflicts of interest with respect to the authorship and/or publication of this article.
The authors received no financial support for the research and/or authorship of this article.